Principles of Geotechnical Engineering

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Principles of Geotechnical Engineering Seventh Edition BRAJA M. DAS

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Preface xiii
1 Geotechnical Engineering—A Historical Perspective 1
1.1 Geotechnical Engineering Prior to the 18th Century 1
1.2 Preclassical Period of Soil Mechanics (1700–1776) 4
1.3 Classical Soil Mechanics—Phase I (1776–1856) 4
1.4 Classical Soil Mechanics—Phase II (1856–1910) 5
1.5 Modern Soil Mechanics (1910–1927) 5
1.6 Geotechnical Engineering after 1927 7
1.7 End of an Era 10
References 12
2 Origin of Soil and Grain Size 15
2.1 Rock Cycle and the Origin of Soil 15
2.2 Soil–Particle Size 24
2.3 Clay Minerals 26
2.4 Specific Gravity (Gs) 34
2.5 Mechanical Analysis of Soil 35
2.6 Particle–Size Distribution Curve 42
2.7 Particle Shape 46
2.8 Summary 47
Problems 47
References 50
3 Weight–Volume Relationships 51
3.1 Weight–Volume Relationships 51
3.2 Relationships among Unit Weight, Void Ratio, Moisture Content,
and Specific Gravity 54

3.3 Relationships among Unit Weight, Porosity,
and Moisture Content 57
3.4 Various Unit-Weight Relationships 59
3.5 Relative Density 64
3.6 Comments on emax and emin 67
3.7 Summary 68
Problems 69
References 72
4 Plasticity and Structure of Soil 73
4.1 Introduction 73
4.2 Liquid Limit (LL) 74
4.3 Plastic Limit (PL) 78
4.4 Shrinkage Limit (SL) 81
4.5 Liquidity Index and Consistency Index 83
4.6 Activity 84
4.7 Plasticity Chart 87
4.8 Soil Structure 88
4.9 Summary 93
Problems 93
References 94
5 Classification of Soil 95
5.1 Textural Classification 95
5.2 Classification by Engineering Behavior 98
5.3 AASHTO Classification System 98
5.4 Unified Soil Classification System 102
5.5 Summary and Comparison between the AASHTO
and Unified Systems 104
Problems 112
References 113
6 Soil Compaction 114
6.1 Compaction—General Principles 114
6.2 Standard Proctor Test 115
6.3 Factors Affecting Compaction 118
6.4 Modified Proctor Test 122
6.5 Structure of Compacted Clay Soil 127
6.6 Effect of Compaction on Cohesive Soil Properties 129

6.7 Field Compaction 132
6.8 Specifications for Field Compaction 136
6.9 Determination of Field Unit Weight of Compaction 140
6.10 Compaction of Organic Soil and Waste Materials 144
6.11 Special Compaction Techniques 147
6.12 Summary and General Comments 155
Problems 155
References 157
7 Permeability 160
7.1 Bernoulli’s Equation 160
7.2 Darcy’s Law 162
7.3 Hydraulic Conductivity 164
7.4 Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity 166
7.5 Relationships for Hydraulic Conductivity—Granular Soil 172
7.6 Relationships for Hydraulic Conductivity—Cohesive Soils 177
7.7 Directional Variation of Permeability 180
7.8 Equivalent Hydraulic Conductivity in Stratified Soil 182
7.9 Permeability Test in the Field by Pumping from Wells 187
7.10 In Situ Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Clay Soils 189
7.11 Summary and General Comments 192
Problems 193
References 196
8 Seepage 198
8.1 Laplace’s Equation of Continuity 198
8.2 Continuity Equation for Solution of Simple Flow Problems 200
8.3 Flow Nets 204
8.4 Seepage Calculation from a Flow Net 205
8.5 Flow Nets in Anisotropic Soils 209
8.6 Mathematical Solution for Seepage 211
8.7 Uplift Pressure Under Hydraulic Structures 213
8.8 Seepage Through an Earth Dam on an Impervious Base 214
8.9 L. Casagrande’s Solution for Seepage Through an Earth Dam 217
8.10 Filter Design 219
8.11 Summary 222
Problems 222
References 225

9 In Situ Stresses 226
9.1 Stresses in Saturated Soil without Seepage 226
9.2 Stresses in Saturated Soil with Upward Seepage 231
9.3 Stresses in Saturated Soil with Downward Seepage 233
9.4 Seepage Force 235
9.5 Heaving in Soil Due to Flow Around Sheet Piles 237
9.6 Use of Filters to Increase the Factor of Safety Against Heave 240
9.7 Effective Stress in Partially Saturated Soil 242
9.8 Capillary Rise in Soils 243
9.9 Effective Stress in the Zone of Capillary Rise 245
9.10 Summary and General Comments 248
Problems 249
References 252
10 Stresses in a Soil Mass 253
10.1 Normal and Shear Stresses on a Plane 253
10.2 The Pole Method of Finding Stresses Along a Plane 258
10.3 Stresses Caused by a Point Load 260
10.4 Vertical Stress Caused by a Line Load 262
10.5 Vertical Stress Caused by a Horizontal Line Load 264
10.6 Vertical Stress Caused by a Strip Load (Finite Width and
Infinite Length) 266
10.7 Vertical Stress Due to Embankment Loading 267
10.8 Vertical Stress Below the Center of a Uniformly Loaded
Circular Area 273
10.9 Vertical Stress at Any Point Below a Uniformly Loaded
Circular Area 275
10.10 Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly Loaded Area 278
10.11 Stress Isobars 285
10.12 Influence Chart for Vertical Pressure 285
10.13 Summary and General Comments 288
Problems 289
References 293
11 Compressibility of Soil 294
11.1 Contact Pressure and Settlement Profile 294
11.2 Relations for Elastic Settlement Calculation 296
11.3 Fundamentals of Consolidation 304
11.4 One-Dimensional Laboratory Consolidation Test 308

11.5 Void Ratio–Pressure Plots 310
11.6 Normally Consolidated and Overconsolidated Clays 313
11.7 Effect of Disturbance on Void Ratio–Pressure Relationship 316
11.8 Calculation of Settlement from One-Dimensional
Primary Consolidation 317
11.9 Compression Index (Cc) 319
11.10 Swell Index (Cs) 320
11.11 Secondary Consolidation Settlement 326
11.12 Time Rate of Consolidation 330
11.13 Coefficient of Consolidation 338
11.14 Calculation of Consolidation Settlement Under a Foundation 345
11.15 A Case History—Settlement Due to a Preload Fill
for Construction of Tampa VA Hospital 347
11.16 Methods for Accelerating Consolidation Settlement 351
11.17 Precompression 354
11.18 Summary and General Comments 357
Problems 358
References 362
12 Shear Strength of Soil 365
12.1 Mohr–Coulomb Failure Criterion 365
12.2 Inclination of the Plane of Failure Caused by Shear 367
12.3 Laboratory Tests for Determination of Shear Strength
Parameters 368
12.4 Direct Shear Test 369
12.5 Drained Direct Shear Test on Saturated
Sand and Clay 373
12.6 General Comments on Direct Shear Test 376
12.7 Triaxial Shear Test—General 380
12.8 Consolidated-Drained Triaxial Test 381
12.9 Consolidated-Undrained Triaxial Test 389
12.10 Unconsolidated-Undrained Triaxial Test 395
12.11 Unconfined Compression Test on Saturated Clay 397
12.12 Empirical Relationships Between Undrained Cohesion (cu) and
Effective Overburden Pressure ( ) 398
12.13 Sensitivity and Thixotropy of Clay 401
12.14 Strength Anisotropy in Clay 403
12.15 Vane Shear Test 406
12.16 Other Methods for Determining Undrained Shear Strength 411
12.17 Shear Strength of Unsaturated Cohesive Soils 412

12.18 Stress Path 414
12.19 Summary and General Comments 418
Problems 419
References 422
13 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest, Rankine,
and Coulomb 424
13.1 At-Rest, Active, and Passive Pressures 424
13.2 Earth Pressure At-Rest 426
13.3 Earth Pressure At-Rest for Partially Submerged Soil 429
13.4 Rankine’s Theory of Active Pressure 432
13.5 Theory of Rankine’s Passive Pressure 434
13.6 Yielding of Wall of Limited Height 436
13.7 A Generalized Case for Rankine Active and Passive
Pressures—Granular Backfill 438
13.8 Diagrams for Lateral Earth-Pressure Distribution Against
Retaining Walls 442
13.9 Rankine’s Pressure for c–f Soil—Inclined Backfill 454
13.10 Coulomb’s Active Pressure 457
13.11 Graphic Solution for Coulomb’s Active Earth Pressure 461
13.12 Coulomb’s Passive Pressure 466
13.13 Active Force on Retaining Walls with Earthquake Forces 468
13.14 Common Types of Retaining Walls in the Field 479
13.15 Summary and General Comments 482
Problems 483
References 486
14 Lateral Earth Pressure: Curved Failure Surface 488
14.1 Retaining Walls with Friction 488
14.2 Properties of a Logarithmic Spiral 490
14.3 Procedure for Determination of Passive Earth Pressure
(Pp)—Cohesionless Backfill 492
14.4 Coefficient of Passive Earth Pressure (Kp) 494
14.5 Passive Force on Walls with Earthquake Forces 498
14.6 Braced Cuts—General 499
14.7 Determination of Active Thrust on Bracing Systems of Open
Cuts—Granular Soil 503
14.8 Determination of Active Thrust on Bracing Systems for
Cuts—Cohesive Soil 504

14.9 Pressure Variation for Design of Sheetings, Struts, and Wales 505
14.10 Summary 509
Problems 509
References 511
15 Slope Stability 512
15.1 Introduction—Modes of Slope Failure 512
15.2 Factor of Safety 514
15.3 Stability of Infinite Slopes 515
15.4 Finite Slopes—General 519
15.5 Analysis of Finite Slopes with Plane Failure Surfaces
(Culmann’s Method) 520
15.6 Analysis of Finite Slopes with Circular Failure
Surfaces—General 523
15.7 Mass Procedure—Slopes in Homogeneous
Clay Soil with f  0 524
15.8 Mass Procedure—Stability of Saturated Clay Slopes
(f  0 Condition) with Earthquake Forces 532
15.9 Mass Procedure—Slopes in Homogeneous c–f Soil 535
15.10 Ordinary Method of Slices 544
15.11 Bishop’s Simplified Method of Slices 548
15.12 Stability Analysis by Method of Slices for
Steady-State Seepage 550
15.13 Other Solutions for Steady-State Seepage Condition 557
15.14 A Case History of Slope Failure 561
15.15 Morgenstern’s Method of Slices for Rapid
Drawdown Condition 565
15.16 Fluctuation of Factor of Safety of Slopes in Clay Embankment
on Saturated Clay 568
Problems 571
References 574
16 Soil-Bearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations 576
16.1 Ultimate Soil-Bearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations 577
16.2 Terzaghi’s Ultimate Bearing Capacity Equation 579
16.3 Effect of Groundwater Table 584
16.4 Factor of Safety 586
16.5 General Bearing Capacity Equation 589
16.6 A Case History for Evaluation of the Ultimate
Bearing Capacity 593

16.7 Ultimate Load for Shallow Foundations
Under Eccentric Load 597
16.8 Bearing Capacity of Sand Based on Settlement 602
16.9 Plate-Load Test 604
16.10 Summary and General Comments 607
Problems 608
References 610
17 Landfill Liners and Geosynthetics 611
17.1 Landfill Liners—Overview 611
17.2 Compaction of Clay Soil for Clay Liner Construction 612
17.3 Geosynthetics 616
17.4 Geotextiles 616
17.5 Geomembranes 619
17.6 Geonets 621
17.7 Single Clay Liner and Single Geomembrane Liner Systems 622
17.8 Recent Advances in the Liner Systems for Landfills 623
17.9 Leachate Removal Systems 624
17.10 Closure of Landfills 627
17.11 Summary and General Comments 628
References 628
18 Subsoil Exploration 629
18.1 Planning for Soil Exploration 629
18.2 Boring Methods 631
18.3 Common Sampling Methods 635
18.4 Sample Disturbance 639
18.5 Correlations for Standard Penetration Test 639
18.6 Other In Situ Tests 644
18.7 Rock Coring 648
18.8 Soil Exploration Report 650
Problems 652
References 653
Answers to Selected Problems 655
Index 662

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