Paylaşım sahibi Gülay Koca’ya teşekkürler
Summer traineeships (site of training) can be shown in the school environment can not be seen in many construction-site application is very important. For this purpose, for a period of 30 days can be found in many construction site environment and even the implementation of application is provided closer look.
Internship in the construction as a rough construction the expression patterns, concrete, iron, drainage, isolation and wall were carried out. The work in this context, the implementation has been followed. In addition, the functioning of the construction site, materials and structure of some jobs (iron control) tasks such as checking and Quantities worship must be fulfilled.
Internship as the construction material in the mold with wood and metal materials used. Columns and beams in the timber materials, the metal plates in the floor pattern was generated using. Columns were required for reinforcement of wood (10×20, 10×10, 10×5), while survival of beams and flooring materials provided by the pipe-shaped metal. Tubular materials designed for just this job, and the lower end of a small space and can shorten the upper end levhacık wood material in the 10×5 size as a mechanism to keep the material would be. All of these materials by columns, concrete spillage during the explosion that prevents mold locks for the same purpose, and yet most of the column lateral fields covering the board to each element of wood can hold, mold materials to shorten the life instead of rectangular steel materials were used.
Mold to Dig
Before work that will be used to mold the wood materials (columns and beams in the concrete surface will be compared with the ones) lubricated with oil after cleaning mold. This is because the pull of wooden material to prevent water and mold removal concrete during a concrete pattern to facilitate.
Mold as shown in the project process to be driven to the location of the crash to begin with axle. Axles and the surrounding columns and the bottom of the 10×5 screen size as the wood material directly nailed to the concrete surface was generated with. Directly to the axles were nailed to the concrete surface to facilitate this process with the goal of having 1 day after the concrete was laid. With the subsequent creation of the axle where the pattern elements were specified to be hammered.
Axle of the side and curtain crash next operation of the column place. Placed on the inside surface of the axle knife patterns with the help of reinforcements standing are invalid. In this way, columns and walls with two small lateral field area will be covered as one large lateral spread patterns. Covering the remaining area of one large lateral mold elements to assist in the settlement for the purpose of reinforcement reinforcement work after not been hammered instead of being mounted.
After the curtain beams and columns during the creation were coming. For this purpose, pre-erected columns and curtains which together make up the bottom of the beams with the help of the board after it has been merged with the duty to move the beams placed metal pipes begin. Thus, workers who are working on the move could easily come to die, and after the creation of wooden beams sub-beams are required for the other side of the board could crash.
Columns and beams to complete the final stage of the formwork, the floor of the container to be come. Will be used to trim the metal plate to ensure the integrity of the mold with niggling between the beams, metal plates to keep 10x10xL (L required material length) size timber materials placed are invalid. Mutual beams to the knife on the side of the board are sitting on the 10×10 lar, will be laid on the metal plates, reinforcement of the future, then the weight of the concrete alone can not carry these materials to be supported under the first for under beams that has been placed on the metal pipes were installed. At the end of this process backwards instead of only the metal plate was not put. Metal plates covering a large portion of the pavement in some places but small gaps remain, and this gap in the board process has been completed and was turned off and die.
Mold removal process first, one day after disposal of concrete beams on the side of the board starts with the removal. The purpose of this process is necessary for an upper floor of the axle was to ensure crash. Wooden beams outside next to the second floor exit immediately if the pattern elements is to be expected after 7-9 days were removed. Otherwise, mold is not pressing for removal of mold, even during the probationary period would be in the floor. Mold removal process was at least pay attention to patterns of crash. The reason for this pattern repeated on the first floor very costly and was to be used. In addition, repair of damaged materials caused the extra labor and time-consuming. Mold removal column, starting with removal of pavement ended.
IRON (Rebar) WORKS
Reinforced concrete structures to enhance resistance to capture the most important materials in the iron and concrete projects to be ready in a specified amount and size were taken as. Agreement in the amount required for each floor of the company equipment as in the colon by preparing site plan application was brought. That is only prepared in the reinforcement of the construction site laying operation was performed. In addition, the company’s own equipment for the laying work done by subcontractors that was contracted.
Reinforcement of the Tile
Accessories mounted on the mold to complete the process of mold as in the colon and head curtain. For each column diameter, the number and length of the accessories that are put into molds set up on the bench was preparing columns. After receiving equipment on a long bench to be placed in the etriye whether measured in meters long with chalk on the draw of equipment determined.
After determining the location of Stirrup they were switched to the long process of merging with reinforcement. For this, the steel wire reinforcement allows you to connect to each other, were used. Long fittings, depending on the condition of the colon, etriye corners and columns have been completed and would be kept to the middle. Columns that have been left in the finished mold can be placed into space above the stalactites are invalid.
Columns are placed into the mold exactly the right fit for action after the column ended, but the curtains were doing this process twice, so the two ends of the screen as the column in the project after it has been placed between them will be placed in the column combine etriye are invalid. After the merge from top left to the long-held accessories etriye columns are invalid. Ones that are held together long weedy called mutual reinforcement of iron combined with curves are invalid. Kippers on both the long reinforcement wires through the column etriye long reinforcement and bottom to be at one with the cross to be placed, after the curtains had been completed.
More frequently in the joints of Stirrup column towards the middle of the beams were made less frequently. This is because the greater strength of the column joints was to require. Extension of the upper iron beams and columns with etriye whether on the pavement as a result of merging with the iron beams had been completed in. Vary depending on the type of floor beams were. Pavement is to be Asmolen (first and last floors Floor block) is done is not normal beam spread beams were made. Also among Asmolen for Floor block sizes smaller Asmolen beams were made.
After the last work in the remaining beams of the floor began to be built. Were made in two types of flooring. The first one provides more heat and sound insulation and finish applied to only the first Floor block. Pattern of laying on the Floor block construction starts with Asmolen. A row facing each other in the open Asmolen after knee while the other part of the latest settlement closed the Asmolen are invalid. Immediately after the side’s position on the floor for the project which will be the amount specified in Asmolen beam spacing the floor. In this way, after the beams instead of the surface covered with Asmolen mounted accessories to be taken per floor. Flooring accessories, grill-like surface will become sok, X-plane order on each Asmolen and Y plane will be two longitudinal reinforcement at regular intervals in the longitudinal reinforcement of the future in the specified range are fitted with project. This reinforcement of the intersection points of each other and they pass over the wire and iron beams have been completed and was kept floor.
Second type and also the most floor beams are applied after completion of the grid only in the form of reinforcement was generated with laying. X-plane in the longitudinal reinforcement of the first (flat reinforcement) lower side is being appointed the next armature (pilye shaped) upper hand, begins and then the lower side and in the face of beams when approaching the upper back side passing the beam passes over the flat in equipment, as well in laying a little scroll to an end er was. Y plane in question was within the same process. Intersecting each other with an angle of approximately 90O to the intersection of these accessories separately from each other, and they passed under the floor beams to keep the wire had been completed.
Concrete used in construction sites (C 20) were purchased as ready. Go to the company’s generating facilities during the internship will be concrete, some studies were done.
The main materials used in the construction of concrete cement, aggregates and water is. 75% of the absolute volume of concrete as aggregate, cement by 10% and is composed of 15% water. As manufacturers of cement and aggregates, ready to buy a drop of water in the plant were obtained from wells.
Quality control of cement purchased by the cement manufacturer whether the changing times by companies that produce concrete was checked. Whether by means of cement plants brought in plants to the cement silo is mixed with air pump for use in after the mixture was put on hold.
Aggregates used in concrete is ready to be purchased after the manufacturer of cement, as in quality control by doing exactly whether or not changing time intervals controlled by the concrete producer. The role of aggregate within the concrete is quite large (of concrete strength and durability to affect significantly so.) Enhances the importance of aggregate control.
Used consisted of three groups according to aggregate size. These number of 1 aggregate (8-10 mm), number of 2 aggregates (16-20 mm), number of 3 aggregate (25-35 mm), respectively. The plant used in the manufacture of concrete aggregates were obtained by breaking big stones. Aggregates according to the size of some partitions can be emptied by a flat-blade loader to join the mixture was put on hold.
Another important component of concrete found in the water after the drop-off well by taking into a pool to join the waiting was beginning to blend. Already issued the required water quality and does not comprise the regular concrete move by the manufacturer tested.
The three basic materials needed for concrete mixture into a position to come after they had joined a specific order within a mixture. Now the most important part of the process of creating the concrete mixing process that was passed. Bottom from aggregate, cement silos, cement and water from the water from the pool came to the last stop before mixing. For each of these warehouses have been created (as with the aggregate, cement and water) to the mixture of the materials again to attend the opening of the flap with computer control would be provided. Cover the opening with the desired material is mixed in proportions to each other briefly at the end of ‘concrete’ can also mix by mixer until consistency are invalid.
To improve certain properties of concrete in the cement in concrete based on the amount of certain organic or inorganic origin, participating in proportions of chemicals are called additive. Additives usually participate in a concrete mixing water. Impact when used can create more than necessary as otherwise required less still if any benefits may not be used. However, the following is necessary to know the good that rules in accordance with the properties of a concrete manufactured by using additives to improve is not possible. However with additives showed a good adaptation of concrete should be checked. This information is set out in the concrete manufacturing plant tried various brands of additives be in line with what is best determined whether the incoming requests are attended to concrete. ” (Concrete production plant with the recommendations of the competent civil engineers are the information received from the website www.betonsa.com)
‘Concrete used in the production of chemical additives in the manner indicated below grouped:’ (The following information taken from the website are the information in www.betonsa.com.)
a) Concrete property-enhancing additives can be processed (Fluidisation contribution):
This group entered into between 0.2-0.5% by weight of cement additives, often in proportions is used. Fresh concrete workability of concrete mix at the same time increasing the contribution of water to decrease the need for increased strength of concrete.
b) Super plasticisers are:
More high-strength concrete used in the production of concrete with the help of water / cement ratio 0.25 is possible to reduce lere. Compared to normal plasticisers süperakışkanlaştırıcılar but 1% – 3%, or more is used in high dosage.
c) Prize for contributions to the change:
Fresh concrete hardening process of outlet called Accelerating or delaying some circumstances are asked. Especially in the summer months, long transport distances outlet retarders, accelerators are used in the winter months are the pir.
d) Air-entraining additives:
Freeze-thaw in the cold climate conditions that protect against the dangers of these substances, but also increased workability of concrete.
This type of concrete additives in the freezing temperature of water by reducing water to freeze and prevent cracking of concrete. However, concrete in cold weather conditions to be added to the final solution, not only antifreeze additives for protection of concrete cast in place special measures are required. The region’s tent, etc. laid concrete. can be given as examples of things to cover.
f) Other additives:
Lightweight concrete, permeable concrete, rötre relief, increase adherence, colorants, etc. There are different additives. Fly ash, silica fume mineral materials, such as puzolanik features include an additive in place.
Only one block over the course of the internship on the top floor of the concrete before throwing concrete ‘Sika’ and often called the water used in isolation had participated in a substance. This article is only with water instead of concrete into the concrete directly on the concrete was poured.
Quality Control of Concrete
Be in the desired quality of concrete is a very important issue. As is known, the most important elements of the structure standing, one of the ensure the desired quality of concrete to make sure that the various controls to be produced.
First, concrete forming materials were checked. This control was also part of the previously mentioned (these applications is valid only for the company was purchased by concrete). Quality standards of the materials after understanding the TSE standards were switched to concrete production.
Belonging to the concrete after the concrete production of some tests of compressive strength of concrete, etc. fluency. As for the evaluation of the features were.
. TS 500 also needs to be done is described and were: Quality control for at least one group from each production unit (3 one sample) test element must be completed. Production unit, the same account and same desired strength materials, the same rate used in the concrete occurs. Also a unit, the same day, or 450 m2 area of fallen and can not exceed 100 m3 ü. A job for at least 3 groups (9 samples) must be taken. With the creator of the samples stored in standard conditions after the pressure test is applied to them. Samples from each of the separate casting or transmixers Concrete Mixer is taken. If more than one sample taken from the same cast Concrete Mixer, they are considered a single sample, and averages are taken into consideration in the assessment. Production of ready-mixed concrete is used in addition to samples taken over the manner described above and the number of samples should be taken.
The evaluation should be based on samples taken on site. Compressive strength of the sample group, the averages of the following conditions provide the basis to see if it should be:
a) Each party mean …………………… fcm ³ fck + 1.0 Mpa
b) All parties will mean the smallest group ….. fcmin ³ fck – 3.0 Mpa
The table below Must concrete classes and shows the strength fck.
Characteristic Compressive Strength
MPa Equivalent cube (150 mm) Compressive Strength
Axial Tensile Strength
MPa Modulus of 28 Day of Elastisity
During the internship, and examination of concrete plant in the eyes situation was as follows: Concrete production plants in two production units sent from one group of concrete experiments for each site element (2 group, 6 samples) were taken. In addition, concrete will be sent to the sites (during training coincided) 1 group (3 samples) would be taken. As a result, each site (ie business) for the 9 samples were taken. The samples taken after the 150 mm size of the jar put into. The samples are placed in molds until the first half filled with standard concrete, steel bars after 25 times swelling by filling out the other half can be inflated again 25 times over with the help of a trowel properly label samples enabling paste were put on hold. Cube-shaped mold samples extracted from 28-day wait was put in the pool cure. Curing temperature and water features pool to meet the standards was a metal pool. 28 days waiting for samples cured pool tested for compressive strength, were measured. Once removed from the pool dry cured compressive strength of samples was measured in the machine was placed. The machine can move up and down two cylinder-shaped installation with the sample arm and at the same time can be broken by compressing the sample is broken, load and stress was an instrument that can be displayed by digital display.
Test results of samples in this way to measure their strength by breaking and as a result is obtained from the same as with TSE standards would be taken into consideration.
As a result, all transactions above the manufacturer’s own internal audit mechanism was concrete. Reliability of this mechanism for concrete concrete manufacturer therefore it is not sufficient to document the authenticity of the document received TSE. As a result, have become more reliable and manufactured concrete producers are controlled by the state has become. Control officer on the construction of the internship and job site every chief to control concrete instead of concrete to be taken during the concrete production center is gradually changing times there were already making the necessary controls.
Finally, the water mixer, cement and aggregate mixed concrete form here immediately after with computer-controlled opening of the mixer valve inside before being emptied, cleaned and transferred to the transmixers. Approach to the bottom of the concrete mixer transmixers easily able to take the concrete mixer was made to transmixers higher. A series of very concrete way so that could be transferred transmixers.
9 m3 and 10 m3 capacity as transmixers as were two kinds. But never filled with full capacity. The reason for this upward sloping roads transmixers concrete block was cast. Take concrete construction to go Truck Mixers at the same time were also provided to mix.
Loss of concrete
Ready-mixed concrete as a substitute for the loss process can be done in several ways. Elle concrete, concrete bucket with concrete, concrete pump concrete, concrete with the conveyor belt, elevator and concrete etc, many methods can be considered. Internship during the construction of the building because of the physical properties of two different types of concrete were observed. These are concrete with concrete pumps and concrete removed and the lift trolley with the loss is in the form of two ways.
Concrete and Concrete Pump Dump
Concrete cast in the most modern methods of. Ready mixed concrete plant or from the concrete transmixers with the help of a fixed or mobile pumps with the desired location would be transferred to. Prepared by the method shown during the internship as transmixers mobile concrete pumps were brought through the loss was in the form desired location. This method was also the most preferred method. This is because of the ease of movement and application easy, was also quite widespread.
Concrete will be used to process starts with the establishment of mobile concrete pump. Concrete will be poured concrete pump-carrying vehicle or structure of the building instead of one of the best available and sabitleniyordu. Stabilization process of the system is mounted in the vehicle during the pumping operation was done to prevent tipping. Stabilization process and tools on the ground after opening 4 extends from side to side jack, the system took on the burden of a wider area were spread. Thus, the tool is provided and stability of the pump rods (pipes) according to the height of the building was opened.
Concrete pump pipes in place of concrete will be poured by a staff with the remote control But is not controlled. In addition, a rubber hose to the edge part of the concrete pump was inserted into the desired location so concrete was poured to be provided. Transmikser concrete pump concrete pump approach was to start transferring. Shortly after this process through concrete plastic tube holding the hose to the desired location by workers fell (before pouring concrete molds wet).
Concrete casting a certain order to be produced. First, columns and curtains almost 1 / 2 increase the fill are invalid. This is done as the reason to install a sudden burst to prevent mold and mold was to ensure stability. Meanwhile, a worker places the concrete is poured concrete with vibrators fully fit and mold into the concrete was trying to ensure their stay in space. After filling the columns and walls for the rest filled with concrete beams and slabs are invalid. Finally, the pavement surface sheen can be fixed with wooden mala.
Concrete pump used up to a certain height, But is unfortunately. (Mobile concrete pumps can reach a maximum of 44 m height. Buda until approximately the 11th floor of the concrete pump is available. This from a height of 12 floors and then after that is not available for the mobile concrete pumps.
Maintenance of Concrete
Concrete, after pouring, the mold outlet received a few days after removal of (approximately 10 days) were watered twice a day for up constantly. Watering in early morning and evening operation was performed. Concrete lose water and lose a large portion of water resistance remains very crisp and had become. To prevent this, the concrete was watered regularly.
The remaining portions of buildings underground (basement floors) may come from the ground and covered with various materials against the water, water entry into buildings and prevent damage to the building of the ground water. Available on the market for a wide variety of waterproofing materials and their application between isolated from the selected two internships were used in the constructions. These materials are described below and implementation.
Surface of Ground Floor to be done Plaster
Membrane type materials can be used (surface fully able to paste) to a smooth surface was needed. Therefore, the exterior of the membrane to be applied to the surface with the desired be plastered.
Applied to the exterior of the mortar used for plastering plastering job done by the master eye is being prepared. First, sand and cement is being mixed together and then to the mixture water was obtained by joining fees. The truth is always the same consistency was also part of fees but the amount of material used was changing constantly as. Rates should be, the material was as follows:
Needed for 1 m2 plaster materials:……….0.002 m3 of sand
……….0.01 m3 of fine sand plaster
……….0.008 tons of cement
……….0.016 m3 of water
Fees, construction and after the mortar from sticking to the surface in order to ensure better to keep the surface wet plaster with. Surface completely dry before being wet (while slightly damp) plaster started to be made. Craftsman wood or made of plastic and a bit of yourself by putting on a mortar into the area you want to go and help to make plaster, which is also called a shovel on this instrument by taking some fees held by other goods were made with the plaster. Mainly the process of making plaster on the surface of the proper fees were to be distributed. For this purpose, first as scattered mortar is thrown to the surface is made of metal and then gauge the long tool called a trowel to the surface with the correct final shape given out and plaster had been completed. One of the most important factor when making plaster plaster and the plaster was approximately the thickness was 3 mm thick.
Using Membrane Separation be done
Mainly referred to as membrane material was bituminous material. 10 meters long and 1 meter wide and is sold in rolls of material according to the type 2 and 3 mm in thickness as ranged. Thickness of 2 mm and glass tissue carrier to the first floor, thickness 3 mm, and the polyester carrier was thrown into the second floor. Composed of several layers of polyethylene and bituminous material comes between them as we have already said at the polyester according to purpose or be placed glass tissue were produced.
Membrane, called the surface of the material before application of dust on the surface to receive and materials to the surface better adhesion to ensure primer (cold emilsiyon) called and cans sold in a black liquid at a rate of 20% is mixed with water and brush the surface application. Lining the surface of the most important part of the implementation work and then come to. Sold in rolls of exterior materials will be covered according to the length of the segmented model was cut with knives. Cut material, called fire pistol with Salome sticking to the heated surface are invalid.
Bonding process was established for workers over the wharf while the other side pasting were moving lower. As noted previously called the first floor and glass tissue POLISER 200 P carrier material applied to the second floor the first floor of the center of the joints called to POLISER P 300 polyester carrier material application.
The adhesion of two layers cross each other, then these materials to prevent damage to the soil under the thick membrane made of hard plastic and on a rough surface layer cap. This is sold in rolls of plastic materials. As in the same layer of protective plastic membrane bonded to the surface are invalid. The difference is being attached to the membrane surface can be heated with a heating membrane protective plastic membrane adhesion are invalid. Protective plastic coating in the surface after the job was completed.
Insulation Materials with the container surface to be do be isolation
The second type of powdered materials in the construction of isolation along with the cans of milk color and consistency within the fluid material at a rate of one-to two (2 a bin bag material powder liquid) was generated by mixing a mortar. Mixing process is done with a mixer in the form of drills and the first mixing and then again after waiting 5 minutes, continue to be mixed, but the very dark fluid was obtained a mortar. Before application of mortar to the surface again and spending came in cans similar to the mixed liquid as a liquid liner with roller was time. This type of isolation is not necessary in making a smooth surface so due to the plastering process was not done.
Placed on the surface of the lining of the material to work with the aim of better wait until 5 minutes after the mortar surface was time. Mortar with a trowel application to the surface as can be done with a brush or roller could be. After applying the first floor to the surface for 10 minutes on the surface hardening of the first floor after waiting for the implementation of the second floor was late. Roll from top to bottom layer is the first move likely to remain on the second floor space is being filled with the aim of better roll moving from right to left are invalid. This process will remain under the entire surface of the building to the ground after the application process was completed.
The building remains under the soil surface covered with isolation material, then ground water entrance to the building were blocked. After the removal of the ground water around the building were being made for the drainage process.
The process of drainage, drainage pipe to the bottom of the building to sit on the 10 cm thick gravel to cope with ser. Normally, a thin drainage pipes under the concrete drainage pipes be laid over concrete, this despite being more economical because of gravel was laid. 16 cm in diameter after spreading gravel, made of hard plastic with holes and drainage pipes each side of the building in a certain direction inclined laid. Pipes into the ground so that water entering the desired direction towards the drive was transferred to the sewer. Pipes are being laid to ensure proper stopping at intervals to the sides of pipes, iron rods were hammered because circular pipes wrapped in a case comes in the form of a straight and uniform did not stop.
After drainage pipes laid during the closure of the top of the pipe was coming. Holes in the floor above ground pipes to prevent blockage of the pipe with a large order on the gravel, pebbles and sand fell to 3 different materials. This outpouring of material thickness is about 30 cm, respectively. One side of the pipes to the surface when looking at the other side of the building was empty. The material spilled on the pipe from side to side registration would not stop. Thus, the material thickness of the pipe must be on to get too much had to be evacuated material. Therefore, keep on pouring out of the pipe materials to develop a method to have had thick. This work was done for 1.5 cm thick, 2 m long and 1 m wide and 10 cm of the two hair-pipe hair after putting the side back in front in the ground filled with sand and gravel we used. Thickness of gravel and sand we want so that we could empty the building process is completed and ready workers unloading sand and gravel above the excavator was doing. Padded back and front of the top of the plate can be removed from the holding in check a little more land was put forward. In this way, all the top of the pipe around the building after closing excavators completely filled.
Two types of construction materials using Internship Temple wall was built. This material is the first of a kind of so-called gas concrete bricks and another was ısıbims. Concrete dimension of 60x20x25 and 60x10x25 in the same manner as ısıbimslerde two types of size 10x19x39 and 20x19x39 was. Size differences arose from the different possible uses of location.
Masonry walls of the Isıbims
Although heavier than brick Isıbims more ductile material more durable and have been preferable because of created by the economic. Heat and sound insulation material in a very good reason to not only being used in interior walls.
Before starting to build the wall materials to be placed between the fees were being made. As always, the eye wall, the workers, to be a certain consistency in the mortar were doing. Unlike mortar of lime mortar plaster walls were joined. The reason for this was to get the mortar more flexible.
Eg to 1 m2 ısıbims; 0016 m3 of sand, 0.0032 tons of cement, 1.36 kg of lime, 0.0059 m3 of water was necessary.
After mortar construction of the wall being built head. First, the wall vertical direction properly to be built which will be rectangular or square wall in the bottom corner of one-side with his cross in the appropriate place to connect the rope was .. then the wall horizontally in line with regularity to ensure that wall height according to the rope wall, the first brick and the last brick is connected between was. Progress against the ropes as this touch mason.
The wall to be built during the first six series cleaned after the mortar placed on the first row at the end of isıbims were placed ısıbims. After connecting threads between the elements in place by looking for the rope are invalid. After passing into the second row during the previous half of the layout of the approach to the sliding on the side as long ısıbims (surprise by doing) wall was built. In this way, come up to the highest level of the wall after the last row was built gazbetonla. This is because the gap in size, fully Compared gazbetonun respectively. Wall in this manner for any reason, eg, after the fall of the wall to prevent the last row between the beams from multiple locations in the wall of wooden wedges driven between the floor of the girder had been completed by sealing process.
Masonry walls with concrete wall
More heat and sound insulation provided by concrete for use in only the outer walls were. Ones and the outside walls of size 60x20x25 ministers are built with materials only in 60x10x25 size of balcony walls were built.
For the first time with concrete walls, floor after cleaning örülürke normally be laid with mortar ısıbimsler used to connect the rope according to the first gas concrete blocks placed on the ground are invalid. In the second and subsequent times gazbetonlara special cement mortar kullanılıyo instead. This adhesive is ready for packaging in the 25 kg er powder was purchased. To prepare glue with 1 part water 2 scale powder mix until homogenized are invalid. Within two hours after preparation should be used in glues and adhesives prepared by joining the reuse of water so it could not be prepared in large quantities was not. A thin layer between the Gazbetonların lot after the glue with the help of other gas concrete blocks placed a plastic mallet are invalid. Between rows to make surprise since the registration was up to half a length. Concrete blocks and equipment more easily can be cut with the saw properly be brought to the desired size and losses did not exceed. Beams up to the wall just the other walls as in knitted wedges be solid walls have been completed and was then.
Door Lintel Over The Construction
Under normal conditions, stacking doors and windows in some buildings and space in order to cover a small beams are applied as an intern on the lintels of the doors on the building next door with the beam close the gap between the goal was made by. In addition, elements of the doors to be constantly working on because of that section was intended to be robust and less vibrant. As concrete lintels were produced. Photo 30 common phrases into the issue spilled onto the one piece of concrete with iron and 8 examined, were obtained.
Construction materials used in, or the quantity of the calculation of cost or used equipment to be used with the material difference between the comparison can be also be paid to subcontractors calculation of the money for the purpose of any material appearing on the project to calculate the amount of work called the footage. Quantities are working on the extraction of iron during the internship.
Each floor plan using column application of the iron curtain in the colon and footage could be made. In addition, detailed plans by utilizing their beams beams found in the amount of reinforcement calculated. Quantities of iron rulers used footage is being made. Quantities of information made the process of filling the table starts with Quantities. Structure name, Page Number, etc.. After filling in information such as equipment was not employed. First you write the number after exposure of the material where the reinforcement and a reinforcement element is how the ruler Quantities ‘in place and the shape of Iron’ by writing to the diameter of reinforcement in the third column was written. After that, the building is symmetrical in the case of the same elements of symmetry according to the state how many will be ‘comparable Pieces’ section were written to. In other words, the entire building, curtain, or how many pieces of this column if this section was written that figure. ‘Pieces’ section or the curtains in his column how many pieces of equipment that is being written. Other work to be done was to write length of the reinforcement. 2.54 m is the length of reinforcement of the full part number is the first to divide decimals were written to the second division. This information is used after it is written with a long piece of equipment by multiplying the total diameter according to the side of the compartment was written. Total length for each diameter of the bottom reinforcement in the ‘total length’ section can be written in the form of the total required for the meter to calculate the weight of tulle with a fixed number of multiplying the total weight were found as a result of a pain. 8-12 mm in diameter the weight of reinforcement ‘Weight of Iron Thin’ section, 14-32 mm in diameter the weight of reinforcement ‘Bold Iron Weight’ section has been completed and had written to the iron Quantities.
USED IN THE COMPARISON SITES NEGATIVITIES
Been faced with various adverse situations from time to time during the internship. These applications sometimes adverse conditions sometimes about the functioning of the site was.
Internship with the start of the first glaring negative about the working conditions of workers was the case. First, none of the workers without any security measures (to wear helmets and safety belts, etc..) Worked. Out against any accident, such as not taking any measures in this regard quite unconsciously (or perhaps because of necessity!) Seemed. In addition, clothing and shoes in them of the development was good. Workers eat the other was a negative issue. And workers on site did not have a cafeteria is forced to make their own meals, or as a result (with the effect of economic conditions) sufficient and were forced to work regular diet. In this case the status of workers while the company did not in any initiative.
Encountered the work of other negative situations (applications) accuracy and with many errors made during these applications was about. Workers rather than technical aspects of information were inadequate and did not even aware of the many errors. The most obvious example of the reinforcement required to pay settlements during a pas. In addition to this project despite the lack of increased use in the reinforcement of the columns or beams was a separate issue. Most of the time taken before the concrete in the iron control was compared with more reinforcement. Reinforcement during placement of reinforcement to each other, sometimes enough to be kept as they should be tight and were not made. In addition, after the pavement surface reinforcement layout with many objects (wire, cigarette butts, etc..) Leave it as is and filled with concrete before the throw was not clear.
Using concrete vibrators, especially when taken during the many things that should not be done was done. Concrete vibrator with a right angle into the branches without touching the equipment to be used or mold while doing almost the opposite of them were. Vibrators are maintained as continuous curved, physical contact with the mold and cut the reinforcement in concrete is not also being held unnecessarily long time. These were mistakes made while working vibrators. In the execution of a vibrator in the absence of alternative methods of vibration, there were serious mistakes made during. In most cases the failure of the vibrator swinging vibration instead of iron columns were being made. Surface of the mold to release iron columns, except hit with a hammer or cut the concrete to provide exactly the place was be.
Of the material in powder form used in isolation when in the use of various problems were encountered. One of the most important reason why the material is relatively new and mainly in construction site chef will be applied to the material about which insufficient information was material masters. In the first phase of the material mix ratio had created problems. At a rate of a mixture of two very heavy mortar and mortar do brush or roll application was almost impossible. Fees to ensure a more streamlined with the aim of 1 / 5 at the rate of water-generating material can attend the company’s agreement with the statement after the proceeding.
Bituminous material used as protective isolation after the hard plastic material glued to the wall with the effect of hot air and then keep of this material was Barkley. In fact, protective materials produced with special anchors to the wall had to be kept, but this was not done.
Drainage in a particular direction of the drainage pipes should be sloped and the pipe on the soil surface should not come into contact by workers were not showing the necessary care.
Prepared for the pre-plaster walls and isolation rates of fees in a mix of experience and expert eye of the decisions were effective. Although a problem in this regard were not more than the required mixing ratio also fully prepare the construction site where the environment was impossible.
The most common mistake in the wall built during the first order necessary to clear the ground before the ex does not and wet. In addition, often after the end of the wall were not driven wedge. Even so the internship is completed during the fall itself was a wall (probably by wind effects).
Lot of information about the internship during the work described in the adaptive and uygumaları have enough ideas. I have heard their names before the internship only have made a lot of material and concepts I have learned through my internship. Also learned in school that the information has been put into practice ie only on paper was not accepted.
Internship as the construction organization structure had bi so easy. Simplicity of the construction site dry, technical officials as the chief of a construction site (architect) was to find evidence of this. The majority of jobs were being organized by subcontractors. Conductor materials and the construction site to do the job just the timing was set. Besides the necessary records and calculations were made. Provides control of the work done was quite inadequate. Work for checking the technical work of Ostim Administration officials also have to be exactly the shape and unable to be made. Therefore described in the previous section were compared with the negative situation.
In addition, the company’s chief and construction site workers’ safety and be fed on issues such as insufficient enough to take action was not obvious. Eliminate the positive side and the quality of works to ensure that construction sites with the aim of a second engineer or architect of receipt of the necessary I think. Also be done from a technical point of workers in jobs must be informed. After all this work be done in a tighter control should be ensured.
The improvement of working conditions of workers in companies that are causing the biggest task. Their chief to take appropriate measures after the construction site with the necessary care to show more appropriate (human) environment will be provided.
As a result, training was very useful. Many cases have been encountered in the worksite environment, the real work in real life as lived and how it was administered was seen.